2. Methods (Literature Research)

Literature Research

Research Collation

We will read, evaluate and summarise the research done. Then, we are to plan and structure our Literature Review.

1. Crane            - URL

2. Joel              - URL
3. Jeron            - URL
4. Kenneth        - URL 
5. Yang Teng     - URL

We collated our research into a single mind map, and here's the URL for it!


We are to judge our research done via these criterias.
•Authority
•Validity & Accuracy
•Objectivity
•Currency
•Coverage
•Location
•Consolidation


Literature Review (Overview)

The literature review is supposed to establish a framework for our area of research. We are to define key points and identify previous studies and news material. Basically, our research scope.

We will be doing literature reviews of 3 sources.


Source 1:


Author: Eric Tan
Published in: The Independent Singapore
Date of Publication: December 27, 2013

What is the literature all about: 

This literature is about the recent implemented fare hike in Singapore. It was written in Eric’s perspective as treasurer of Workers’ Party. He believed that the government, Public Transport Council (PTC), Land Transport Authorities (LTA) and the like should not grant the transport operators’ request for a fare rise for the following reasons.

  1. The operators receives an annual subsidy or gift of S$1.1 billion from the government to buy new buses.
  2. The MRT continues to be plagued with operating problems such as breakdowns and delays. They cannot claim that the reason for the problems is that the trains are aging as even the new Circle line and recently opened Downtown lines have experienced breakdowns and delays.
  3. Commuters continue to suffer overcrowding and delays.
  4. The MRT had many good years of rising profits in the past eight years, which we now know came about at the expense of maintenance. During those good years, they also had the good fortune of experiencing increased ridership due to our government’s liberal immigration policies.


How can its accuracy be ascertained: 

Accuracy can be ascertained as this was published on The Independent Singapore which is one of Singapore’s main papers and the person who wrote it is from Workers’ Party, a political party. Since it is published on a political platform, it is correct.

What makes the literature believable? 

Recently, on January 25, 2014, 300 showed up at Hong Lim park to protest against the fare hike. Organisers said some had walked or cycled to the event, in an apparent boycott of public transport. Some came with placards which read 'Why pay more for lousy train service' and 'We demand no fare hike'.

What were the limitations of the study?

The article was written in the point of view of a single person and from a political party. The article might be biased against side of the incident making it less accurate.

What do other sources say?

The other sources have similar explanations about the incident.

Is there any evidence of bias in the article?

There was slight bias in the article as it kept emphasising on the negative side of the transport companies introducing a fare hike even though their service was below satisfactory.

Is there missing information?

Yes. The advantages of having a fare hike.

How was the information/data collected?

As he was from a political party, he managed to get information from the transport companies and tabulated the data.

Literature Review (consolidation of all information)

Public transport companies Singapore Mass Rapid Transit (SMRT) and Singapore Bus Service (SBS) Transit starting from April 6 are introducing fare hike that affects all commuters except children below the age of 7. It was said to be one of the methods to reduce traffic on the road at a specific time in order not to have heavy traffic jams. Despite the reasons, Singaporeans are angered and displeased with the increase in the sum charged for riding in a public conveyance and as such, 300 protested in Hong Lim Park. Reasons being that there are too frequent train/bus breakdowns and poor service. Several newspaper companies have wrote about the incident and commuters should ponder on whether is there a need for fare hike. SMRT is a government aided company while SBS Transit is a company by ComfortDelgro. Despite it being an independent company, they receive an annual $1.1 billion (SGD) subsidy from the government. Many think that with such large sum of money, there is no need for fare hike.

Source 2:

Author: Christopher Tan (Senior Transport Correspondent)
Published in: The Straits Times
Date of Publication: January 17, 2014

What is the literature all about: 

Around a million commuters will pay less for travel, even as bus and train fares increase by two to six cents when the biggest price adjustment in 15 years kicks in on April 6. This is because there will be a slate of new and enhanced concessions to go with the overall fare rise of 3.2 per cent

How can its accuracy be ascertained: 

As Straits Times is the main paper of Singapore, its accuracy can be ascertained. Also the information in the article was drawn and sourced from several other official government websites.

What makes the literature believable? 

The article is believable as the event is true as well as the fare hike in Singapore.

What were the limitations of the study?

The limitations of the study is that only the editor and writer write in their own point of views. They do not show the point of view of a government official or a normal Singaporean.

What do other sources say?

Other sources say the same thing that there is a fare hike in Singapore.

Is there any evidence of bias in the article?

The article was written based on the evidence they had. As such, the article was not very biased.

Is there missing information?

No information was missing from the article in regards to the general consensus.

How was the information/data collected?

It was through different media like government official websites and interviews.

Literature Review (consolidation of all information)

Releasing details of the first fare revision since 2011, the Public Transport Council (PTC) also announced that although the two public transport operations here will make an additional $53.5 million in revenue, part of this will be contributed back to a fund meant to shield the poorest households from fare hikes. Singapore Bus Service (SBS) Transit and Singapore Mass Rapid Transit (SMRT) will have to contribute $7.2 million and $4.38 million respectively. The PTC has announced a slew of changes to bus and train fares and concessionary schemes that will come into effect on April 6. The council has also lifted the daily limits on train rides for train and hybrid monthly passes, which means users of these passes can take an unlimited number of rides per day.

Source 3:

Author: Kimberly Spykerman
Published in: Channel News Asia
Date of Publication: January 25, 2014

What is the literature all about: 

A protest against the recent fare hike was held at Hong Lim Park on Saturday evening. Some of those who joined the protest had walked or cycled from their homes. The two-hour event was organised by Mr Gilbert Goh from transitioning.org.

How can its accuracy be ascertained: 

Channel News Asia is the news for the whole of southeast Asia thus this shows that it is broadcasted worldwide and many people watch it. Their data has to be validated over and over, therefore it will have trustable information.

What makes the literature believable? 

The article is believable as the event is true and has been reported in several other articles from different sources.

What were the limitations of the study?

The limitations of the study is that only the editor and writer write in their own point of views. They do not show the point of view of a government official or a normal Singaporean. 

What do other sources say?

Other sources also mention that there has been a protest against the fare hike.

Is there any evidence of bias in the article?

The article was written based on the evidence they had and the validations of several reporters. As such, the article was not very biased.

Is there missing information?

There is no real missing information as the protest has been sufficiently reported and there is enough information to understand why there was a need for a protest against the recent fare hike.

How was the information/data collected?

It was through reporters and other media sources in Singapore.

Literature Review (consolidation of all information)

There has been a protest against the recent fare hike at Hong Lim Park and it was organised by Mr Gilbert Goh on a media platform, transition.org. This news was reported through Channel News Asia and they have stated the reasons behind the protest and the happenings of the protest.

Literature Review (Summarised):

What is the literature all about: 

Starting from April 6, public transportation companies are introducing fare hikes that affects all commuters except children below the age of 7. Despite the reasons that it was done to reduce traffic on the road at peak hours to reduce traffic congestion, Singaporeans are angered and displeased with the increase in the sum charged for riding in a public conveyance.

As such, 300 protested against this fare hike at Hong Lim Park, all of which was organised by Mr Gilbert Goh on a media platform, transition.org. Reasons being that there are too frequent train/bus breakdowns and poor service. SMRT is a government aided company while SBS Transit is a company by ComfortDelgro which receives an annual $1.1 billion (SGD) subsidy from the government. Many see no need for a fare hike because of these reasons.

The Public Transport Council (PTC) released details of the first fare revision since 2011 and also announced that the public transport operations will contribute $11.58 million of their additional $53.5 million increase in revenue to a fund meant to shield the poorest households from fare hikes. They also announced a slew of changes to bus and train fares and concessionary schemes that will come into effect on April 6. The council has also lifted the daily limits on train rides for train and hybrid monthly passes, which means users of these passes can take an unlimited number of rides per day.

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